Sexualization of Girls through Media

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Imagine looking at an advertisement with a woman propped up on a sink with her legs wrapped around a man in a towel – then, imagine a young girl seeing that same image.  Most people see this image and think this is an advertisement for a sex product but it is an advertisement for Candies’ perfume.  Advertisers use associate principles in their ads.   In this Candies’ perfume advertisement, market researchers learned that sex sells so they associate their product with the cultural value that has a positive connotation on their product sales. This is Candies’ market strategy most of these sexualized images have very little to do with the product they are selling.

Candies’ products used famous-person testimonial to attract buyers. About 10 years ago, young pop stars like Britney Spears or Fergie were used to promote their shoes.  Today, they are using Disney stars like Vanessa Hudgen (age 23) and Hayden Panettiere (age 22). The image Candies’ has developed, is using grown woman to look like young girls. The creative director and design team dress these young adults in bras and panties with frill, ruffles and bows or cute pastel colored baby-doll dresses. Often, they will have their fingers in their mouth, blowing bubble gum or licking a lollipop.  Also, they pose them in a sexual manner doing household activities like ironing or they will be posing in a child-like manner for example, spilling milk.  Candies advertisements are just one of the examples of how woman are sexualized in society through media.

Often, people are numb to these sexualized advertisements because these ads are normalized in our society, but they shouldn’t and can’t be ignored because of how young girls are interpreting and mimicking these images and ideals?  This paper will looks into: Issues of sexualization. What are ways media sexualizing girls?  What are the effects of the sexualiaztion?

Children ages 2-7 see average of 17 minutes of advertising a day (about 38ads).  Annually, they see 13,904 ads which, is nearly 106 hours of ads. Children 8-12 years old see 37 minutes of advertising a day (about 83ads). Annually, 8-12 year olds see 30,155 ads, that is, about 230 hours a year. Children 13-17 years old see 35 minutes a day of advertising (about 79ads).  Annually, 13-17 year olds see 28,655 ads, nearly 217 hours a year. (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2007) The Kaiser family foundation found these are the numbers of the overall exposure of advertising among children on all topics.  Children are constantly exposed to media’s images.

In media, sexual images aren’t wrong if they are portrayed appropriately to the correct audience but “the ultimate consideration for regulators appears to be whether such material is ‘acceptable’ for the potential target audience.” (Buckingham and Bragg, 92)   It’s an understood fact that ‘sex sells’ but advertisements are going beyond the usual.  Especially when, teen idols like Britney Spears and Vanessa Hudgens are the posing provocatively to grab the attention of young consumers for product sells. Children are a target to be marketed to.

According to Amy Harman, the American Psychological Association Task Force defines sexualization as:

  • Valuing a person only for their sex appeal and sexual behaviors,
  • Imposing the standard of sexy=attractive on someone,
  • Sexually objectifying a person, meaning that the person is seen only as something to gratify someone else’s sexual desires,
  • Inappropriately imposing sexuality on someone (for example, implying sexuality or sexual behaviors before they are mature enough to understand sexual activity).

It could be argued that these sexualized advertisements are a form of ‘art’.  It is a display of the human body, much like the statues in the historical Victorian era.  But, those statue and images, bestow a philosophical discourse that justifies bodily displays. Thus, those images do not display unrealistic body images, unlike the advertisement girls see every day.  The bodies displayed in most sells ads are often used merely to titillate.  These superficially displays of women are unachievable, despite what all the advertisements say.  Girls can start fulfill their dreams of becoming beautiful with, “My Dream Make-up Set – Princess Make-up” at age four, according to the toy label.

These ads aren’t showing girls that they are human beings but that they are objects to be made better.  Jean Kilbourne touches on the idea of hegemony. That media economics creates the ‘normalcy’ of what society thinks is valuable.  By ad, after ad, girls see and are told what is normal or what they should look like, and how they should talk and act.  Lite skin color, thin, perfect straight hair, make-up, flawless, beauty, and if, you don’t look like that – then, advertisements show the product that will help you to achieve those VALS.  This is exploitation and objectification to sell.  Warped and perverse could be better words to describe the sexualize advertisements or images displayed in the media.

Propriety, ideology, and spectatorship – what’s decent, what’s the message, and what happens when you look at an image?  These are terms and questions are how someone views media when they become media literate. How media is being produced and circulated can be manifested simply as ‘selling sex’ to young girl.  Clearly, this discourse invokes the prospect about the media effect.  Although, the concern here is not so much about the moral consequences of the sexualized images, but more so about the attitudes or values they might be seen to promote.  Media literacy is cognitive learning lesson.   Young girls do not have a full understand of the message they are seeing.  In accordance to the social learning theory, girls will see these images and will mimic them as accurately as possible.

Dress-up is in active many children take part in, boys become Super-man, fire-fighters, or a cowboy – girls become princesses, mommy, or Barbie.  This has been seen as harmless but why aren’t little boys playing care-takers and little girls playing cowboys.  Yes, it in part has to do with psychology or genetic differences and body make-up but there is a bigger picture, or media picture, that brings up a different prospective.  That media is making discussion for us starting at a very young age.  In many advertisements, boys will be captured running or doing more lively forms of playing.  Girls will be captured in more submissive poses like playing sitting down and standing still.  When young boys and girls are together in pictures the boy is always taller with a masculine poses, the girls will appear gentle with a soft smile.  Kids are very aware that boys stuff is for boys and girls stuff is for girls and playing with or wanting the other genders product is thought to be odd.  Media lays the guidelines of how we should be and act.  Girls learn that they should fulfill stereotypical role of what a woman should be at an earlier age through advertisements, TV programs and even the most thought to be harmless media, Disney movies.

Watching the stories unfold in Disney Princess films is always the same ideals of male and female relationships.  Jeff Brunner created a visual image called, Disney Princesses, Deconstructed.  The visual shows the Princesses with descriptions of their life roles and Brunner, nails down the stereotypical role of each of the Disney princesses.  He describes Princess Jasmine in the film Aladdin, “This princess must get married to satisfy the requirements of the law.  Her reluctance to do so causes her powerful father no end of trouble.  She is enslaved by a powerful man and is only saved by the wit of a street rat.”   Jasmine is an object in a game of power between men.  Another example is from Cinderella: “she is saved from terrible living conditions by a prince.  He does this, not because she’s such a hard worker, but because she is beautiful.”  Cinderella is a servant to her step-mother and sisters.  This shows girls that a woman, as close as your mother will cross and hurt you – but there is hope because if you are beautiful you will be saved from all the evils of the world because a man will find you.   Arial from Little Mermaid “drastically changes her physical appearance so to be more attractive to a man.  The price is that she can’t speak.  No problem, she has nothing of value to say anyhow.”  This shows girls that the cost of beautiful and appearance outweighs all other things. Also, it is better to be seen, not heard and it’s good to sacrifices everything you know and love to be with a man.

Brunner may seem forthcoming and a bit over the top, but the truth is that these are the bold plot lines of these films.  Be beautiful to be discovered and save by a man.  Each of these Princesses are powerless unless a man is standing beside them as a protector.  In most Disney films it is a kiss that is the key to unlock happiness.  Each princess uses beautiful and sex as their salvation.  Young girl think that this is the mainstream views of how life is.

The story of Lolita is about a tween girl becoming a victim of child sexual abuse by her stepfather after her mother passed away.  The reason her stepfather married her mother is because he was a child sexual predator and he prey was Lolita.  Gigi Durham, author of The Lolita Effect, relates Lolita’s stepfather or attacker to media.  Lolita had no choice to becoming the subject of sexual abuse because that is how her step-father viewed and pursued her.  Much like the girls today are victims of sexualization by the media.  “Girls are the targets of media and marketing corporations: they don’t originate these fashions and these projections of sexuality.” (Durham)  Media is objectifying and dis-empowering girls with image similar to pornography and erotica.  Girls are taught that they should have skinny bodies and that they need to be consumers of clothing, make-up, and accessories in order to look “pretty,” “grown up,” and “sexy.”  Girls have toys like, Barbie Lingerie, who comes dressed in sheer black lingerie and stockings. A similar toy is Brats dolls, which also sells girls on consumerism and sexiness.

In related news, a child lingerie line was created in France.  Jours Apres Lunes is marketing its product with photos of young girls with big hair, posing on a bed or sitting on top of a makeup table wearing bra tops and panties.  It is a cross over from adult wear into the kid’s zone.  But, this doesn’t hit to far from home because American parents in search for stardom will do anything to get their children into the spot light, which is demonstrated in the show Toddlers and Tarras on TLC.  Parent are displaying their children in adult make-up and hair, dressing them up as Dolly Parton in a padded bra and encourages the child the dance around a stage.  There is a fine line between girlhood and womanhood that is being crossed.

Childhood is full of imagination and play, but what happens when manufactures and media start to direct your child’s imagination.  Toy and products designers are generating consumerism, as well as the creating products that are sexualizing little girls. In the film, Killing Us Softly 3, Jean Kilbourne is surely right about media images are telling us who we are and how we should be. She is aware that advertising is the foundation of the mass media and the primary process of the mass media, is to sell products. But, it also sells values, images, and concepts of love, sexuality, romance, success and most important normalcy.  One of the key ideas is that media lets woman know that looks are most important.

Sexualization of girls is a topic that needs to be explored more in depth, because it is an “increasing problem and harmful to girls.” (American Psychological Association, 2007)  Today’s children are bombarded with large doses of sexual content that they cannot process and that are often terrifying. They are immersed with overwhelming amounts of mature sexual content that is raiding them in a primeval time of adolescent growth.  It is speeding up the girl’s childhood causing a large amount of health issues.  Their cognitive and emotional development is affected, pertaining to the idea that objectification undermines confidence.  Sexualization affects their mental and physical health, causing eating disorders or depression.  Finally, sexualization has a negative impact on girl’s healthy sexual self-image which affects their sexual development.

There is no need for young girls to be sexualized through media. Images are telling girls that sexy is good at far too young of an age. Media needs to change how they idealize youth or young girls will be force into unhealthy develops younger and younger.

Same up to date:

Women’s interest Blog http://www.becomingabetterwoman.com/

 Work Cited:

Buckingham, David and Bragg, Sara. Young People, Sex, and the Media the Facts of Life?  Great Britain: Rowe, 2004. Print

Food for thought. (2007). A Kaiser Family Foundation Report.

Harman, Amy. “Sexualization of Young Girls Round-up and Twitter Party.” Becoming a Better Woman from the Inside Out. 9.6.2011. 11.3.2011 (http://www.becomingabetterwoman.com/2011/09/sexualization-of-young-girls-round-up.html)

Kilbourne, Jean (Producer), 1987. Killing Us Softly 3, Advertising’s Image of Women[DVD].  Cambridge Documentary Films.

Olfman, Sharna. The Sexualization of Childhood. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 2009. Print.

Olfman, Sharna. Childhood Lost How American Culture Is Failing Our Kids. Praegar Publishers, 2005. Print.

Sexualization of Girls.  American Psychology Association.

(2007).  Sexualization of girls harming self-image and healthy development.  The Hindustan Times,

Silverman, Robyn. “Dr. Robyn Silverman Today Show Parenting Export – Controversial Loungerie.” Today Show, NBC. 8.18.2011. Youtube. 11.3.2011 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Ydhb79YhdFs&gt;

Stardy, Marin. (2007). Sexualization Harms Girls. Mothering, Iss.142. 31.

(May.8.2008). The Lolita Effect. 11.1.2011.  www.tellinitlikeitis.net/…/the-lolitaeffect-the-media-sexualization-of-young-girls.html/

Literacy and video games

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Literacy through Video Games

Children today are growing up in a digital world.  They spend hours daily surrounded by different media platforms, which are presented in many forms. When children step into the classroom, most of them have computer or technology skills.  Yet, we are still teaching our youth in a 20th century fashion by traditional practices of teacher to student verbal lectures. This way of teaching could be difficult to keep the attention of these digital kids.   And, why is it that the world around us is expanding and evolving to mold to the digital world but the children of the future are being taught the same curriculum that you and I were taught?  This blog looks at a new way to educate our youth through video game play and creation.

Video Games

It can be said that through the evolution of man, comes the evolution of technology.  Over the past 15 years we have seen a dramatic change in digital media and its uses. This change applies not only to everyday life, but also to the classroom. Children are seeing new technology every day, and with every new piece of technology comes a new way of learning. The digital age we now live in has changed the landscape of everything from education to entertainment. Three items especially, the iPad, iPod, and iPhone, have completely changed the way many people learn and live. These items specifically are going to usher in a completely new way of learning. On the other side video games and computer animation have played a similar role in the development of children born through the 1990’s. Many games focus on cognitive thinking as well as problem solving and communication. Within the past 10 years games such as Phoenix Wright have the user (consumer) play as a detective in a courtroom drama. The user is then tasked to find all evidence and put it together to put a criminal behind bars. This game demonstrates the need for cognitive thinking and problem solving, challenging the user to think outside the box. Many other games offer a wide variety of skills to players; some of these games made famous on the console will be put into iPad’s and iPhones.

Literacy

Traditionally, literacy is the ability to read, write logically and analyze printed resources. Reading development is the key to being able to decode a message, and use its information to make informed decisions and hopefully develop creative thought. According to Jane Tallim, children today should be taught the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain and are sold to us every day. Literacy encompasses decoding, interpreting, and performing. Decode: breaking down the information. Interpretation: how you understand the information. Performance: using the information. The key component missing in schools is the freedom to creatively interpret information they are presented with.

Video Games as an Educational Tool to Becoming Media Literate

While most of us think of “video games” in terms of trending hits on Xbox and Nintendo, we should also look at them as being educational tools; equally as effective as textbooks in today’s digital world, video games are influencing children, students, and adults throughout the nation. For a game to be successful in education development it must have meaningful play. Meaningful play emerges from the relationship between a player’s actions and their consequential, relevant, and significant results. If a game fulfills these basic requirements, then we can assume that it is playing a role in media literacy.

Media literacy is the ability to sort through and analyze the messages that are presented to us everyday through different media outlets. By observing these different modes of technology, specifically video games, we can begin to understand how content influences reality. With the coming of the new millenium, our society has seen an increase in social reform and political/economic pressure, all of which has been digitalized and made available for public knowledge and commentary. In our world of multi-tasking, commercialism, globalization and interactivity, media education isn’t about having the right answers—it’s about asking the right questions. Are we using evolving media sources to their full potential? Can video games teach us how to effectively utilize media in general or are they better suited for teaching us specific lessons? Is visual content more understandable than written content?

As learning evolves in today’s world of technical change and social challenges, students and teachers alike must adapt to better suit the needs of a digital generation. In the past, computers have been used as calculators, typewriters, fax machines etc… having the ability to transform into almost any tool we need; their flexibility is what makes them such efficient and reliable educational tools. The best teachers must be responsive, adaptive, and use a variety of strategies to appeal to individual students – the computer’s flexibility in these areas are giving video games the potential to be the newest and best learning tools. In this regard, the aforementioned computers and video games are forcing us to re-think our idea of media “literacy”. Until recently, “literacy” in classrooms has dealt almost exclusively with text, asking students to read, understand, and analyze print resources. However while traditional reading and writing skills we automatically associate with literacy are valuable, they are no longer sufficient for students to excel in academia. New media such as video games enable more students to participate and interact; those who may learn best through images or hearing rather than seeing words are beginning to find technological tools as the best form of education.

Learning Literacy through Video Games

Most children today find school work to be boring, and so new methods of teaching have been implemented in hopes of getting kids to enjoy learning. Experimental forms of education, particularly via video gaming, have recently come into play, leaving astonishing results in there shadow. In order to be a successful eductor, teachers must ask themselves, “How do you get students to learn something complex and yet, still enjoy it?”

Most schools run on standardized tests that require memorization of hard facts. According to Gardner, research has shown that even people who pass the test sometimes cannot apply their knowledge to solve or understand the conceptual lay of the land in the area they are learning.  Also, the philosopher, psychologist, and education reformer from the 1890’s, John Dewey, believed the purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but rather the realization of one’s full potential and the ability to use those skills for the greater good. Students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience the world and interact with others. For this reason, it is best if all students take active parts in their own education.

This brings us to how video games are educational tools.  Below are examples of how video games in the classroom could be positive and effective learning tools for students.  Video games give students an active role their own learning as well as a vehicle through which to become both traditionally and media literate.

Students as creators of video games:

In producing video game content, students are able to practice reading and writing skills in a creative way. Also, they have to develop problem-solving skills in order to determine which direction the game will go. But, even before they start the production of the game, they must thoroughly understand the material that their video game centers on. Therefore, students conduct research which accurately supports their topics throughout the game – because the more accurate the material is, the more realistic the game becomes. When research begins, students must apply their media literacy skills by asking pertinent questions that will determine the success of their game.

Who is the author and what is the purpose of the message?

What techniques are used to attract your attention?

What lifestyles, values and point of views are represented?

How might different people interpret the message differently?

What is omitted from the message?

Interaction and taking risks:

Video games start the player off slowly so as not to discourage the player.  Within the first few levels, the game teaches how to use the controls, with basic content/storylines leaving few opportunities for failure. This lets the player develop skills progressively throughout each level, and also provides opportunities for the player to take risks. If applied to every day life, this style of play-to-learn can build confidence and teach kids that sometimes you need to take risks in order to solve a problem. A conceivable reason schools have failed to teach risk-taking could be that failed grades discourage interpretation, a main focus of being literate.  This also leads to self-confidence issues in students.  But, if a player does become discouraged, the game “talks back”.  Actually, nothing can occur until a player acts and makes a decision. Once the player does so, the game will react to the decision whether it is right or wrong.  Digital devices, like video games, have the ability to correct or lead students in the right direction if they steer off path but text and textbooks have no way to “course-correct” or interact with the reader.

Comprehension:

Repetition helps a reader retain knowledge more effectively.  Comprehension is a learning tool to becoming literate. Good gaming challenges players to solve problems until their solutions are virtually automatic. Video games have players repeat a part of a game until they reach the planned outcome.  When a video game utilizes a story line or plot to propel the player, users are able to pick out and understand main points of the story and goals of the game. Since they are actively engaged in problem solving they can learn and more importantly, retain, the material as they go along instead of just memorizing words on paper (as textbooks would have them do). Video games will also test the player, much like school comprehension tests.  Video games will move on to different section of the game with a new adventure or story but later in the game, the player will have to recall information that they learned perhaps in the first level or chapter of the game to complete the level that they are in.

Visual literature and vocabulary:

Vocabulary is often a hard subject.  Memorizing a definition or few different definitions for one word is difficult for some students.  Research has shown that people only learn new words by associating them with a distinguishing action or experience. This gives the word a situated meaning not just a verbal meaning.  In other words, it’s visual literacy.  Video games can situate words with images so children can associate the image and dialogue with the word.

Skills for collaboration:

Since schools are based on individual grades and test scores, children often miss the opportunity of collaborative work, where each member within the group upholds a different function or task.  Video games motivate kids to be productive in groups.  Often in multi-player video games, players will have distinctive skills and if one person doesn’t contribute, then all players fail or lose the game. Also, within video games players cannot see race, class, ethnicity or gender, making for a discrimination-free environment.

Weekly Response 6

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Cyberbullying-emotional and psychological issues

Book

Citation: Rogers, Vanessa. (2010) Cyberbullying: activities to help children and teens to stay safe in a texting, twittering, social networking world.

Call number: HV6773.R64 2010

Summary: Its a tell all book about cyberbullying. The different forms, methods, and ways of cyberbullying.  The laws about it.  And ways to talk about cyberbullying if you are being cyberbullied.

Video

Citation: Manchick35 (2009) Cyberbullying. http://www.matacafe.com/watch/26101079/cyberbullying /

Keyword: Cyberbullying

Summary: This video shows a transition from bullying in the school yard to bullying on the internet or the phone.  The child being bullying is unable to get away from it.

Journal

Citation: vandeb, Heidi. (2009).  Cyberbullying among youngsters:profiles of bullies and victims. New Media and Society, Volume 11 (8) 1349.

Summary: Kids who are cyberbullied are the kids who are perpetrators to traditional bullying.  People who are being bullied online are more prone to use the internet more often.  Therefore becoming a largest target for cyberbullying.

Website

URL: http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/

Citation: Wired Kids Inc. (unknown) Stop cyberbullying. (10.13.2011). http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/

Summary: The website is a donation base website to stop cyberbullying. It tells what cyberbullying is, how is works, why kids do it, prevention, how to stop it, and laws.

Weekly Response 5

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The video brings up an interesting idea with many visual examples of new media teachings within schools.  For me, its a little difficult to think of school without the traditional curriculum.  Quest of Learn is following to New York State guidelines but I question if the students are really getting all the information of the old curriculum in with the new gaming teaching style.  Once there is proof of the Quest to Learn students having the knowledge of regular public school curriculum, I won’t be able to make the switch. On the other hand I ask myself, what was the prepose of half the information I was taught in public school,  do I use that information today, and with the knowledge I could have gained from Game Design and Systems(Rogers, 13) be a more successful learning process for my future today?

A very valid point within the video is, “the most important thing for a kid growing up today is the love of embracing change.  In a world of rapid change the need to memorize something is a 20th century skill.  The need to navigate in a buzz of confusion and to figure out how to trust the information that you find.  If you can feel confident doing that the world is yours.”  After hearing this quote and believing how true it is, I believe experimenting with new methods of teaching to incorporate more technology is a building block for the future of education.  Today, kid are growing up in a technology world and “using 20th century tools to teach 21st century world” is a great platform for their growth into the future. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyamsZXXF2w [We] posit that in order for media literacy education to keep pace with contemporary youth culture, we must also include the culture of media production, which combines newer tools and changing contexts of use.(Roger, 2)

Teaching visual literacy through a cell phone game at the museum is a exciting and compelling concept.  Going to a museum as a child can become boring after looking at the few pieces of art.   Having the option of a game, where kids could have fun, learn and interact be a wonderful idea.  The game allows the student to gain knowledge to create clues, then those clues have to be sent to another group to be decoded and interrupted to discover the piece of art.  This game teaches visuals literacy with multimedia literacy.  Visual literacy is about “examin[ing] how images are comprehended and interrupted.” (Hobbs, 16) Learning at the museum teaches students how to look at object closely and interrupt them. Then they become the creator and producer of a creative and insightful story about the object.  (http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2009/dec/20/visual-literacy-surf-art-museum/) Having the students become the teacher and creators is a positive approach to learning.  Kids should be the center of learning and the way to teach should surround how they learn.  http://www.pcworld.com/article/191074/why_ipad_is_the_childrens_toy_of_the_year.html

The first question any student will ask is “how am I going to be graded?  This video leaves out that answer.  Its seems as if it would be difficult to grade creative learning.  With the students sitting with the city planner and discussing the issues is a wonderful life experience and great learning tool to discover an issue then creating a solution but how are they graded?

Weekly Response 3

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After viewing the hilarious, viral Youtube video, “The Crazy Nastyass Honey Badger,” I became intrigued to discover who the author was and his motives.  In the title of the video it says Randall is the narrator but who is Randall?  Well, after researching from website to website, I still don’t have an exact match for the flamboyant voice of the hilarious narration.

I have come to presume  Randall is an alias name for a Comedian Christopher Gordon.  Chris Gordon is a comedian who has many improv video.  Some are exactly like the “honey Badger” video but there are others.  I’m fairly sure the creation of the video was him trying to get discovered, which he has.  The Huffington Post said he was just signed to do a narrative book series about wild and crazy animal.

I posted two youtube videos because one is the original video and the other is the voiceover narrative creation to the same nature documentary footage.   Both videos share the similar information.  The original National Geogrphic video  currently has 5,598,241 views and the humorous video has 18,021,433 views.  People could gain the same information from both the videos but they are gravitating to the funny narrative.  People want to learn about different animals but they also would like to be entertained.

The point of view is that education can be fun and now 18,021,433 people now know something about a black furry animal from Africa but what is omitted is that Randall is trying to get sassy commentary to make him money.

Which video would you like to see more of?

Weekly Response 2

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…literacy is control of secondary uses of language(i.e., Uses of language in secondary discourse) (Gee, What is Literacy? ,6)

This quote is short but sweet.  It basically explains in one sentence what Gee thinks literacy means.  Once, a person has control over secondary disclosure they are literate.  In order to be obtain the skills of secondary disclosure you must be able to communicate with non-intimates aka people who aren’t within your family or a family friend that has been familiar to you from birth.  Within secondary disclosure is primary disclosure therefore you have to obtain both skills.  Secondary disclosure requires an individual to be able to communicate either through the written or oral language maybe even both.  Part of secondary disclosure is understand what is mainstream and how to adapted to the ideas of the mainstream whether you believe in them or not.

But, there is also the problem with “reading class” that it stresses learning and not acquisition. (Gee, What is Literacy, 4)

I’m going to breakdown some of the words of this quote to understand its meaning.  Reading simple is decoding, turning to symbols that are printed on a page into words.  Learning means attaining, breaking down and analyzing knowledge through the guidance of a teacher.  Acquisition means gaining information without being taught.  People are naturally exposed to ways of communication and if they don’t grasp it, they won’t have the ability to function.  Reading class stressing learning over acquisition means thats the students will all be thinking in the same matter as they were being taught to think.  Acquisition reading would involve more thinking through a trail and error process and student would obtain more knowledge through their interpretation of story rather than taking in the mainstream concept.  I agree with the quote, that seems like a problem.

Just because the book is in front of them doesn't mean they are learning.

Most people believe that security through obscurity will serve as a functional barrier online. (Boyd, 16 )

Some will say social networks are a way to “stalk” people or to review their pages thoroughly.  Since social networks have an invisible audience, we don’t know who is viewing the page.  Boyd mainly talks about social network use of children.  There are two groups of people interested in viewing their pages peers and “people who hold power over them”  like parents.  Security through obscurity means that these kids are censoring what they and others are posting on their walls.  This allows them to stay out of trouble from their parents because it isn’t on their page for the viewing of their social networking ‘friends’ or parents.  Parents think their children are angels but if they would dig a little deeper, the incriminating information is there on that social network just on another page.  This allow a safety barrier between children and the “people who hold power over them.”  Are these kids treaty or literate?

Players must each master their own specialty (function), because, for example, a Mage plays quite differently from a Warrior, but they also must understand enough of each other’s specializations to integrate and coordinate with the others (cross-functional understanding). (Gee, Good Video Games and Good Learning, 37)

I love this about video games because each invisible player has a individual identity.  Making them a specialize tool for success.  It teaches something that kids wouldn’t learn until they started working.  That a person could have a different responsibility but you need all of the different components in order to get to job done.  Also, you will be most affective if you have an understanding of what all the other responsibility job/functions are.  Another important concept is that the players don’t know who they are playing with, therefore there is no identity discrimination.  Video games are for everyone.

Anyone Plays!

Good video games lower the consequences of failure; players can start from the last-saved game when they failed.  (Gee, Good Video Games and Good Learning, 35)

Video games promote exploration as a good thing.  Its okay to take the risks and try something because if it doesn’t work out, the player won’t be punished.  There will be a minor set back but the risk of trail and error could be well receive knowledge for another part of the game because as a player gets deeper into the game to more complex problems they will have to decode.  The player will acquire knowledge of different functions as they complete the level.  In school, students will fear the process of trial/ error because if they try and fail, they’re not rewarded with the passing grade and often there are no second chances.

Weekly Response 1

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On a summer day in 1994, my brother Wes, his best friend, Joe, and I grab the hot dogs from the refrigerator and headed to the creek with our fishing poles.  After a few minutes of Joe tossing in his line, he had a bite.  He said it felt heavier then the sunnies and catfish we were used to catching.  He reels it up out of the water. We will all stepped back thinking, what is that?  It was some sort of a black snake looking creature.  We all have seen eels before but, to our knowledge eels only lived in salt water.  No one wanted to touch the mysterious fish-snake so we cut the line and ran through the woods back to the house.

The first place we thought to search for the mystery creature was our encyclopedia collection. We had a computer but no one thought that it would be the fastest way to discover what our finding was.  In order to do so, we would have had to unplug the phone line, then plug in the internet line. Most likely sit through the many attempts to connect to the internet with that dreaded dial-up sound. By the time we would have got online, we had already looked through a few books discovering that there are fresh water eels living in our creek.

Today, the search would have been as simple as flipping open the lap top and typing a few words or we would have googled it via smart phone when the fish was still hooked to the line.  We probably then would have snapped a photo of it to compare it with other pictures of fresh water eels to make sure our guess and analysis were correct.  After the confirmation, we would upload the photo on Facebook with a short message of our proud catch of the day. Now a days, if you don’t share it on Facebook it did not really happen.

Kids are always questioning and learning ways how to discover the answer.  In the 90s, our available sources for finding information were books, floppy disks, and the World Wide Web 1.0.  Therefore, finding the answer took more time and energy. Its not that our media literacy was worse then, its that technology continues to improve.  Today, “kids are using media and technology from before breakfast until bedtime and  beyond.” (Hobbs, 7) In short, media literacy comes with the times. The more exposer and availability one has to media, the more media literate they will become.  Giving children a greater opportunity to analyze and evaluate the world and messages that they are coming across.

Late thought:

“As a society, we have spent too much time focused on what media are doing to young people and not enough time asking what young people are doing with media. We need to embrace an approach based on media ethics, one that empowers young people to take greater responsibility for their own actions and holds them accountable for the choices they make as media producers or as members of online communities.” (Gardner, Jenkins, 2/3)  With the youths media use being so high, ethics has to be an issue to address.  Involving media in the classroom could help imbed guidelines and values of ethics.  Teach children to be liable for the message they produce and analyze all messages that are being produce for them.  They will learn from us but in return we would be learning from them through their interruptions.  “Things gain meaning by being used in a shared experience or joint action.”(John Dewey)